WhyClean and comfortable private sanitation in urban conditions integrated in a system of off-plot santation.
Re-use of human waste for urban farming initiated by local entrepreneurship
No sewerage, no spill of flush water
A solution for proper sanitation in densely populated areas, while taking into account all aspects of hygiene, comfort as well as the recycling of human waste.
An alternative for sewerage that is costly to lay out in an existing urban situation, an alternative for the need of filtering of sewerage fluids
Self-sustaining entrepreneurship should take initiative for providing sanitation facilities to the local community
To become available within the economic reach of the very poor. -
To be part of the promotion of urban farming.
Construction and upkeep of the facility has to done with locally available means.
HowA box shaped toilet, designed to collect faeces and urine in separate partitions. The box offers a comfortable position to sit on or to squat. It prevents stink by forced ventilation. The Bathroom Box offers pressurized water for cleansing in front and rear, while preventing wash water to enter the faeces compartment.
The box is small in size and easily stored when not is use.
With the top part with seat and wash facility taken off, the container can be rolled to a nearby location where faeces and urine are collected and processed for recycling.
Recycling is done by dry fermentation, while isolating human waste fully from the surrounding. The recycling of human waste into fertilizer for urban agriculture is profitable for the local entrepreneurship. This will include the distribution of the toilet units. In this way it is ascertained that also poor neighborhoods are serviced.
The Bathroom box itself is made from recycled plastic in a local workshop.
Top picture shows prototype, remark the small size of the box, yet sufficient for two day's use for a family.
Lower picture shows testing of rolling the unit, by now perfected to a level usefull in practice.
- Develop and test functions as rolling and emptying of the unit,
- Develop and test the means for personal cleansing with water
- Link to ongoing projects related to sanitation and urban farming
- Find out more about ongoing projects and policies of governments or NGO's related to urban farming
Human excrement: the unmentionable global crisis noname
Copied from ID 21Urban Development Monday 4th August 2008
Although 2008 is the International Year of Sanitation, 40 percent of the world’s population, 2.6 billion people, have nowhere to relieve themselves in dignity. Instead, they are forced to use alleyways, waste-tips, river banks, railway lines and fields. Massive improvement in health and human dignity could be achieved by the safe disposal of excreta.
Making the Cement Pot for the Solar Bathroom Box
The base for the SolarBathroomBox is a stable square cement pot. Making it from cement allows to give it the most functional form. Production can be done small scale in a way well known in shanty towns. Local capacity and local need for proper sanitation comes together this way.
This was a first test to learn to make such a toilet pot. The result was very already very useful, also indication where many improvement could be made in the next experiment: 30% less weight, less taper, round top, easier production.
Links related to Uban Farming
- Urban farming promoting project in Ethiopia related to the use of urine separating toilets
- Urban agriculture, information gathered by the Dutch 'Ode' magazine
- The City Farmers of Africa by Diana Lee-Smith: the average productivity of urban farm plots in Kenya is higher than that of rural plots, and is highest in the capital at 9,000 k/ha.
- Energy from Bio-gas from manure
Aus einer Tonne organischem Abfall k?nnen pro Tag 100m3 bis 160m3 Biogas erzeugt werden, was etwa 65 bis 95 Litern Benzin entspricht. Mittels WKK k?nnen daraus rund 170 kWh Strom und 340 kWh W?rme in Form von Warmwasser mit etwa 70?C erzeugt werden. Je etwa 10%?20% werden f?r den Prozessenergiebedarf der Anlage aufgewendet.
- A report on the separate collection and use of urine in South Africa.
- The general picture of the growth of urban settlements in the near future. As a concequence, the need for recycling human waste for urban agriculture.
- WastewaterUse in Urban Agriculture
Article appeared as a cover story in Environment & Development magazine (Arabic), Issue No. 60, March 2003. Written by Boghos Ghougassian, Coordinator of MECTAT, Lebanon
This article describes the reality of the use of (in most cases untreated) urban waste water for urban farming.
Description of the (not enforced) WHO-guidelines for use of waste water in urban farming.
- Dissertation based on research done in a Dutch government sponsored research project from cooperating partners. Through this link the EET_DASAH project can be reached. (Dutch language).
- Advantages of nutrient recycling, as artificial fertilizers depend on miniral recources depleted in less than 100 years and contain poison
- WHO Guidelines for the use of waste water.
Links related to composting and urine separating toilets
Links related to availability of recycling plastic for the manufacture of toilets
Promoting Composting and Sanitation entrepeneurship
Links related to Biogas digesters
- The Sulabh International Social Service Organisation, the largest nationally and internationally recognised pan-India social service outfit with 35,000 volunteers on the rolls who work to promote human rights, environmental sanitation, health and hygiene, non-conventional sources of energy, waste management and social reforms through education, training and awareness campaig
Links related to Sanitation for the Urban Poor
- Sustainable Technologies for Waste Managment
Sulabh is the pioneering organisation in India, involved in the fields of human waste disposal. The two-pit pour flush toilets (popularly known as Sulabh toilet) developed and modified by Sulabh is nationally and internationally recognised design for safe and hygienic disposal of human wastes.
- Send us an email form about any relevant link, that should be added here
What other people say...
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by Reinder van Tijen - Sat Dec 02 (2006)
by Stijn - Wed Dec 06 (2006)
by Reinder van Tijen - Wed Dec 06 (2006)
New start with a feedback form for each item
Some time Demotech had been in doubt how to handle the forum function that
is advocated in the main menu. The way it was designed by our web master
from the start was to provide one forum item for each item. This proved to
be not very inviting. Over the years only few people used it. And their
contributions were not very neatly displayed. Less clear as in the more
So the offer of Sander Bokern was gladly accepted to provide such a forum,
Sander planned to build this forum function from scratch. It took him some
time to do so. When the contours of his work became clear, it also became
clear we were not really equipped to provide the care and the time to keep
In the mean time Demotech got involved with Appropedia. Their staff highly
appreciated Demotech's content. Some of this content was ported to their
pages. The Wiki-structure of Appropedia (identical to WikiPedia) offered a
natural environment for feedback and participation.
A new idea was born: could we not port the short description of each
design item to the Category structure of Appropedia? And add to this
content a link back to the original content on the Demotech website?
People from ApproPedia said that they liked the idea. So for Demotech this
also became an attractive option. The only remaining problem: it is a lot
of work and time is already scarce.
This is what we have decided to do:
- Work towards porting summaries of Demotech's design initiatives to
_ Invite feedback and participation from people visiting these Appropedia
- Improve slightly the form function as it was up to now at the Demotech
web pages, such as to show only the first lines of a contribution ending
with a clickable "More".
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stadsboeren, compost, compostering, hygiene, krottenwijken, riolering, sanitaire zorg, ondersteek, ouderenzorg, off-plot sanitation, ....