Literature Research / Hits


A big research for separate collection of urine and feces with a so called NoMix-toilet. The research is divided in several groups with all their own topic like, transport, process etc.
See here the notes considering processing urine we made about this page.

1st international symposium on ecological sanitation (Closing the loop)

A report about ecological sanitation and the possibilities it has to solve problems in poor countries.
Contains very detailed information about all parts of ecological sanitation.
See here the notes considering processing urine that we made about this site.


Alternatives for flush toilets in western countries. There's a lot of information on this site with a lot of useful links.
Only for developed countries


explanation about all kinds of toilets. With also the advantages and disadvantages of the different types.

Garden manual

A lot of information about fertilizer like contains, different types etc.
It depends on many factors which fertilizer is needed, so we will have to find out what is needed as fertilizer and see what can be made out of human manure.

The Humanure Handbook (html) as pdf

The complete book about using human manure.
See here the notes considering processing urine we made about this page.
And another note considering processing urine we made about this page.

Information about the 2003 Dry toilet conference in Tampere, Finland. Contains information about urine being a fertilzer for algae growth.
See here the notes considering processing urine we made about this page.

Hygienic aspects on reuse of source separated urine

Information on the risks of the reuse of urine for agricultural purpose. Contents information about the different pathogens and their survival time under different circumstances in urine.

Algae Control in the Aquarium

General basic info on algea and blue-green algea.

EET Project

This pdf-paper, based on Dutch multi-disciplined research by EET, describes how the economically feasible production of algae result in biomass that can be used for generating energy as well as for extracting pigments for coloring.

Houden wij (van) onze spoeltoilet?

This is a dutch research about the alternatives for usual sewage. A pity only the summary is in English.
See here the notes from this file.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Research concerning the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in a High Rate Algal Pond system.
Contains information about the size of the used Algal Pond.

Piggery Waste Treatment (Singapore)

Pilot project in Singapore where a High Rate Algal Pond is used for piggery wastewater treatment.
Interesting site because the High Rate Algal Pond is used directly to treat manure (from pigs in this case). We are searching for more background information concerning this project.

Analysis of key variables controlling phosphorus removal in high rate oxidation ponds provided with clarifiers

High rate oxidation pond (HROP) technology was introduced in California in the 1950s, with the aim of reducing the surface area required by conventional oxidation ponds (Oswald and Gotaas,1957). HROPs are shallow (30 to 40 cm) and operate by means of mechanical mixing. The energy applied to stir the mixed liquor promotes the growth of the phytoplankton and prevents its settling (Oswald, 1988a). HROPs need a lower mean hydraulic retention time (HRT) than oxidation ponds to treat the same wastewater flow (Abeliovich, 1986).

Het urine onderzoek (Dutch)

Contains information about the compounds in urine and the weight of urine. There is also information about the different pathogens in urine.

Technion, Israel institute of technology: Bioregenerative farm system

This website contains information about bioregenerative farm systems where waste water is treated by algae. The treated water is used for irrigation and the (dried) algae can be used as component of cattle food.

RIRDC: Integrated wastewater treatment and aquaculture production

Contains information about the treatment of piggery waste with algal ponds in Australia.

Cyanotech drying system

A complex way to dry the algae.

What is Spirulina?

A lot of information concerning the spirulina bacterial ,like tolerances and use.

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Page last modified on March 31, 2010, at 09:33 PM